Make Your Lips Look Bigger











{September 2, 2011}   Fat transfer From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fat transfer (medically, platelet injection fat transfer, also called fat injection or fat grafting) is a medical procedure that uses the patient`s own fat tissue to increase the volume of fat in the subcutaneous area of the body. Autologous adipose tissue transplantation has been used for breast augmentation for cosmetic reasons and after breast cancer surgery. It is a minimally invasive procedure an alternative to breast augmentation using breast implants.[1]

In 2007 doctors from the UCLA Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery found in a study of autologous fat transfer found that “the literature fails to provide definitive evidence of fat survival.”[2]

However, a recently published study shows results on the quantification of volume gain after liposuction and subsequent autologous fat transfer to the breast. The prospective clinical study including 85 patients evaluated the method of water-jet assisted liposuction and autologous fat transfer for breast augmentation. The study verified a permanent take rate (volume gain) of 76±11% of the grafted fat after a time period of 6 months. The assessment of volume gain was done by preoperative and postoperative MRI spectroscopy.[3][edit] Origins

Fat injection reportedly started in 1893 when German physician Franz Neuber used a small piece of upper arm fat to build up the face of a patient whose cheek had large pit caused by a tubercular inflammation of the bone.[4]

In 1895, another German doctor, Dr. Karl Czerny, did the very first documented breast augmentation when he transplanted a fatty tumor from the patient’s lumbar region, or lower back, to a breast defect.[5]

In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons concluded in their Guiding Principles that fat grafting for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries is be a safe method of augmentation and correction.

[edit] Overview of current techniques

In the 1980s, when the liposuction procedure became more widely available, fat also became much more easily withdrawn from the body. In 1984, Mel Bircoll M.D. introduced micro injection of fat graphs, using liposuction techniques.[6] That development allowed more plastic, dermatological and cosmetic surgeons to offer their patients fat transfer for cosmetic reasons. Some contend that an advantage of fat transfer is that it is the patient’s own tissue and, hence, not subject to rejection by the body. Another advantage pointed to is that most other dermal fillers are absorbed by the body within three to nine months, making regular injections a continuing expense.

Essentially, the fat transfer procedure harvests fat from one part of the body where an excess exists and then places it in another part of the body where the additional bulk is used for cosmetic and aesthetic purposes. Fat transfer—which is also known as fat grafting, fat autographs, autologous fat transplantation, fat injecting or microlipoinjections to physicians—is being used in cosmetic plastic surgery to:

  • Smooth and repair aged hands
  • Fill wrinkled, creased faces
  • Create more shapely, curvaceous buttocks
  • Enlarge breastsclip_image002

A facial plastic surgeon extracting fat from male patient’s stomach to use for facial fat transfer procedure.

Fat is withdrawn from the patient in one of three ways: with a syringe that has a large-bore needle or with a liposuction cannula. The fat is prepared according to the practitioner’s preferred method and then injected into the patient’s recipient site. The preparation process clears the donor fat of blood, pain killers and other unwanted ingredients that could cause infections or other undesirable side effects. Moreover, some physicians have found that human fat outside the body is incredibly delicate. One researcher (Mendieta) found that, to obtain viable fat, the needle withdrawing the fat can’t be too narrow, the liposuction cannula can’t have too strong a vacuum pressure and the centrifuge used to clear debris from the donated tissue can’t spin too rapidly. Another researcher found that vacuum pressure on the liposuction machine could not be higher than 700 mmHg.[7]

A few doctors excise, or cut, small strips of fat from the body and then place, rather than inject, the tissue in the recipient site, using additional small incisions.

Other uses and applications continue to develop as surgeons work with, and learn more about, fat transfer. Some of the most current and developing applications include:

Depending on the surgeon, the patient and several other factors, the body is reported to reabsorb anywhere from 20 to 95 percent of transferred fat.

Due to the varying rates of absorption and the different lengths of time fat is reported remaining in the body, many physicians a
nd other researchers worldwide since the 1980s have tracked success, safety and failure rates of fat transfer.[8][9]

In most applications, fat injections are laid down through several different layers of skin and muscle to provide a better chance for the fat cells to find a nearby blood supply. Because some fat is always absorbed, most physicians inject somewhere around 30 percent too much. Physicians have learned the best donor areas are found in:

[edit] Current clinical applications

[edit] Fat transfer to the hand

A wrinkled, bony hand with large veins, sun spots and deep grooves can reveal an advanced age even though the patient’s face, breasts or body have been surgically rejuvenated. Consequently, plastic, dermatological and cosmetic surgeons have developed techniques to make hands also look younger. A few practitioners use dermal fillers like Restylane and Juvederm but the longer lasting method seems to be fat transfer via injection which is reported to last for years.

[edit] Facial fat transfer

A liposuction technique is used to harvest the fat and prepare it for transfer. The fat is then injected into the desired portion of the face. When using a micro injection technique, extremely small parcels of fat are placed into multiple layers of the face. The procedure is most commonly performed under local anesthesia with a light oral sedation.

Harvesting fat from patient’s abdomen which will be transferred to patient’s face.

Transferring harvested fat into injection syringes.

Syringes with harvested fat ready to be transferred.

Harvested fat being injected into patient’s cheeks by a facial plastic surgeon.

The most common facial locations for fat transfer include:

  • Filling in sunken areas beneath the eyes
  • Fleshing out the folds of skin that physicians know as nasolabial folds, the deep wrinkles next to the mouth often referred to as “laugh lines.”
  • Filling in forehead creases
  • Cheek Augmentation

Generally, 40-60% of the transferred fat persists permanently. Although, the long-term efficacy of transferred fat has been documented in numerous studies results are extremely technique dependent.

[edit] Lip augmentation

Tiny, punch-like incisions are made at one corner of the patient’s mouth. The surgeon then takes one- to two-millimeter-thick strips of fat from the donor site and gently works them into the upper and lower lips for a plumping effect that is reported to be safer, softer and more natural than lip augmentation with popular injectable facial fillers like Restylane or filler materials like medical Gore-Tex or, e-PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) as the material is known to doctors.

[edit] Buttocks augmentation via fat injections

clip_image002[1]

Lipoinjection to buttock with upper And lower abdomen, upper back, bilateral hips, mons pubis, and bilateral inner thighs.

Main article: Buttock augmentation

Many women, including transwomen, and a growing number of men want a curvier, rounder and shapelier rear end. While thin patients must opt for insertion of special buttocks implants to fill out their derrière, patients who can spare the fat can undergo fat injection in a surgical procedure known as gluteoplasty or Brazilian butt lift. Working through small incisions in each gluteal cheek, the surgeon places fat cells at dozens of levels through the patient’s rear. It’s an exacting procedure; one practitioner (Roberts) reports that a placement of fat cells the size of teaspoon will perish because that many fat cells can’t find a blood supply. Most surgeons who perform the task say the perfect deposit of fat cells is about the size of a single pearl or a pea; the drops are placed in long rows. After the procedure, the patient must wear a compression garment for about six weeks and sleep on the stomach for about a week. In most cases, non-athletic activities and driving can be resumed in about five days.

[edit] Breast augmentation via fat grafting

Fat grafting to enlarge female breasts can be performed for cosmetic reasons, to correct breast asymmetry, tuberous breast, a condition in which the adult breasts fail to develop in puberty and result in extremely small, narrow and sagging breasts, or to correct Polands Syndrome, a rare birth defect characterized by underdevelopment or absence of the chest muscle (pectoralis) on one side of the body. It is used to reconstruct breast deformities due to mastectomy, a lumpectomy, a breast implant collapse.

[edit] Correcting asymmetrical breasts

Up to 25% of women’s breasts display a persistent, visible breast asymmetry,[11] which is defined as differing in size by at least one cup size.[12][13] Ten percent are severely different, with the left breast being larger in 62% of cases.[14] Few surgeons will agree to an augmentation procedure unless there is a difference of at least one cup size.[1]

Model Katie Green, who was chosen from among 4,000 other girls as the new face for Wonderbra in 2011, had severely asymmetrical breasts. Her right breast was a B cup and 2 inches (51 mm) and two cup sizes smaller than her left breast, a D cup. In January 2001, she underwent platelet injection fat transfer which transferred fat cells from her thighs to her left breast.[1]

[edit] Augmentation results

Coleman and Saboeiro compiled statistics on a series of fat injection breast augmentation patients and reported that improvements in the size and shape of the breasts are possible with a fat grafting technique.[15][16]

In that procedure, the doctors harvest donor fat, centrifuge it for refinement and to screen out impurities. Then, in a four- to five-hour procedure, they inject the fat into the layers of the breast through six to eight, two-millimeter incisions in each breast. (One millimeter is the width of a single line drawn by a ballpoint pen.) Blunt syringes and cannulas are used to place the fat so that no damage is done to blood vessels or nerves. The fat is layered from the pectoralis major muscle up through the top of the breast; the surgeons rely on the fat injections to shape the breasts for an aesthetic, natural-looking result.

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) and the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (ASAPS) formerly advised surgeon members and the public against fat transfer augmentation procedure because the methods for harvesting fat cells had not been standardized and due to concerns about side effects such as oil cysts, calcification, and tissue scarring.[17] Since then, improvements in mammography equipment and methods for harvesting and injecting fat cells have been refined and reduced the associations’ concern. When compared to saline or silicone implants, they currently state that there “is little clinical evidence, pro or con, exists to suggest that fat grafting is safer or better than saline or silicone implants.”[17]

The ASPS issued a new policy paper on Fat Transfer/Fat Graft and Fat Injection on March 11, 2009. In it, the Executive Committee approved a policy paper.[18] The paper offers background information on the applications, risks and complications, and techniques of fat transfer procedures. The paper also summarizes scientific evidence. Additionally, four guiding principles are stated, based on the conclusion that fat grafting is a safe procedure in select cases; and that results are dependent on a surgeon’s technique and expertise. Indications for fat grafting included: Micromastia; post-breast augmentation deformity, with or without removal of implant; Tuberous breasts; Poland’s Syndrome, post-lumpectomy deformity; post-mastectomy deformity; deficits caused by conservative treatment or reconstruction with implants and/or flaps (latissimus dorsi or TRAM); damaged tissue resulting from radiotherapy and nipple reconstruction. There is at least one registered clinical trial, ID:NCT00466765, currently with open enrollment.[19]

In addition to these referenced reconstructive procedures, fat transfer was introduced [20] for use in the high risk breast cancer patient. The patient undergoes standard bilateral nipple sparing mastectomy and liposuction. The lipo-aspirate is stored using known biological tissue storing techniques in liquid nitrogen. After a suitable healing period, the lipo-aspirate is injected in serial treatments to build to a natural contour. Given a relatively small breasted woman with sufficient donor fat, the breasts may be enhanced in size over the preoperative state.

[edit] Results

Because the surgeon usually must inject too much fat to allow for reabsorption, the overcorrection can make the patient’s face look too plump or swollen for about a week. However, many patients are able to return to their normal activities immediately. Most notice some bruising, swelling, and redness in the donor and injection sites. Results from patients, physicians, and other researchers place the durability of fat injections anywhere from half a year up to eight years.

[edit] Potential risks and side effects

“Firmness and Lumpiness- While most transferred fat results in a natural feel, it is possible that some or all of the fat may become firm, hard, or lumpy. If some of the fat does not survive the transfer, it may result in fat necrosis (death of transferred fat tissue), causing firmess and discomfort or pain. Cysts may also form at the site of the transferred fat. Surgery may be required to improve such conditions.” source: Current Applications and Safety of Autologous Fat Grafts: A Report of the ASPS Fat Graft Task Force Karol A. Gutowski, MD, Chair, and the ASPS Fat Graft Task Force. figure 1: INFORMED CONSENT FOR FAT TRANSFER PROCEDURES (FAT GRAFTS AND FAT INJECTIONS)

Fat transfer remains controversial although many plastic, dermatology and cosmetic surgeons offer various fat transfer procedures to their patients because the procedure is so well received by patients.[21]

Potential risks of any fat transfer include bleeding or hematoma, (a pool of blood forming under the skin), infection, nerve damage or wound dehiscence, when a surgical wound opens. Sometimes, fluid collection, or seroma, around a surgical wound happens. While all are normally easily controlled and healed, more serious complications can arise. In the case of the former Miss Argentina, Solange Magnano, the gluteoplasty led to pulmonary embolism, which she succumbed to on November 29, 2009 after three days in critical condition.[22] A close friend, Roberto Piazza, was quoted as saying the liquid from the injections “went
to her lungs and brain.”

Overall, the survival of injected fat seems to depend on how the physician harvests the donor fat, the technique used to treat the fat and how the prepared fat cells are put back into the patient and the site to which the fat was moved. Doctors Summer and Sattler found that fat survives equally well when removed with suction via liposuction or when withdrawn by a syringe. The issue of survivability seems most affected by where in the body the fat is transferred, how much that site moves, how muscular it is and if disease is present.

When a large area like the buttocks is treated, the patient may have to stop normal activities for a while and can expect some swelling, bruising or redness.

Do you want to amaze your friends & attract more people & success with beautiful, plump and luscious lips without lip plumping injections ?



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